Facts & Statistics

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Abortion, Alcohol, Alzheimers, Breast Cancer, Cancer, Chronic Fatigue Syndrome, Crime, Dating & Relationships, Diabetes, Diet, Healthy Eating, Knife Crime, Love & Relationships, Obesity, Physical Activity, Sex, Smoking, STI's / STD's, Stress, Testicular Cancer, Toe Nail Fungus,

Abortion

Ancient abortion methods included applying substances externally on the abdomen such as various ointments and creams, bruised corn boiled with vinegar, and boiled cypress leaves. Physicians, such as Galen, also recommended hot baths, blood letting, strenuous physical exercise, leaping, riding in a shaky carriage, carrying heavy weights, emotional shock, body massages with hot oil, or being vigorously shaken by two strong men
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Ancient Hebrew religious law regarded a woman pregnant at 40 days after conception and, therefore, abortion before that could not be considered criminal
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Ancient physicians also used pessaries, or vaginal suppositories, as abortifacients. They were usually more potent than oral drugs and included substances like the juice of the wild fig, a "milky liquid" which caused irritation, soap-wort, myrrh, myrtle, lupine, cedar-oil mixed with water, wine, or hot oil. Physicians also recommend smearing on the uterine opening goose fat, mashed leek and celery, rose oils, pine resin, copper scum, boiled honey, sodium carbonate, and even mouse dung
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Ancient physicians clearly understood that abortifacients could damage the uterus, cause septic abortions, and generally endanger to the mother's health. Ovid compares the dangers and wounds from war for men with the dangers from abortion for women
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Aristotle suggests that the conceptus had a "soul" after 40 days from conception if a male and 90 if female (for a similar differentiation, see Leviticus 12:1-5 in the Bible). Later, Aristotle says that the fetus develops "little by little" and that one cannot make fine judgments
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Currently, Belgium (11.2 per 100) and Netherlands (10.6 per 100) have the lowest rates of abortion, while Russia (62.6 per 100) and Vietnam (43.7 per 100) have the highest rates
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During the Middle Ages, abortion was tolerated because there were no laws against it. There were a variety of abortifacients, such as mixture known as a "cup of roots" and another called "A Cure for All Kinds of Stomach Aches." A medieval female physician, Dame Trotula of Salerno, may have been the first woman gynecologist and administered a number of remedies for the "retention of menstrua," which was sometimes a code for early abortifacients
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During the Renaissance, abortion was still tolerated, though Renaissance scholars knew less about birth control and abortifacients than did their medieval, Islamic, and classical forerunners. Perhaps this is due to the move of medicine from apprenticeship to male- and theory-centered universities, the growing gap between physicians and midwives, and the desire for larger families
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Hippocrates alludes to abortion in his Hippocratic Oath. Some translators argue Hippocrates said he would not administer a woman "a pessary to produce an abortion." Other interpretations suggest that Hippocrates actually said he would not "give a woman an abortive remedy." In the landmark Roe v. Wade decision that legalized abortion, the United States Supreme Court in 1973 dismissed the oath as an incorrect application of a historical precedent
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In 2003, there were approximately 42 million abortions per year worldwide, or 115,000 daily. This was a drop from 46 million in 1995
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In Arabic society, the evidence of continuous uses of early abortifacients is abundant. When classical texts were reintroduced into the West via Arabic influence around the thirteenth century, Westerners had the knowledge of ancient Greek and Roman medicine as well as the superior knowledge regarding contraception and abortifacients from the Arabs
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Modern Arabic women still take colocynth as an abortifacient, though one woman who took 120 grains in a powder died 50 hours later
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Physicians such as Pliny the Elder (A.D. 23-79), Dioscorides (c. 40-90), and Pseudo-Galen (129-216) mention more "superstitious" abortifacients, such as crossing over the root of a cyclamen, the egg of a crow, a viper, or a stone bitten by a dog. Additionally, if a woman crosses the menstrual blood of another woman, she will have an abortion
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Some ancient pessaries were similar to Utus paste, a substance injected directly into the uterus as a method of abortion in Europe and the United States until the 1960s, but eventually condemned as unsafe. Use of Utus paste to terminate pregnancy, however, can still be found in many developing countries
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Surgical abortion was well known in the ancient world though, due to lack of anesthetics and antibiotics, it was dangerous and painful. Celsus (c. 25 B.C.-A.D. 50) provides the most complete account of a dilatation and curettage (DandC) operation, which required placing one, sometimes two hands, into the uterus to straighten the fetus and then extracting the fetus with a hook. Ancient texts such as Diseases of Women, Superfetation, and On the excision of the foetus refer to a surgical tool called an embruosphaktes ("embryo-slayer")
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The Egyptian Kahun Papyrus (1850 B.C.) suggests crocodile feces either for preventing conception or as an abortifacient. In Arabic medicine, elephant feces were frequently recommended. The Ebers Papyrus (1550 B.C.) contains several recipes that "cause a woman to stop pregnancy in the first, second, or third period." One recipe for a vaginal suppository includes combining the unripe fruit of Acacia, colocynth, dates, and 6/7 pints of honey and pouring the mixture onto a moistened plant fiber
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The Stoics thought the soul came when the fetus was exposed to cool air, although the potential was present at conception. Plutarch and Tertullian both ridiculed that idea because babies born in hot climates or in warm rooms were certainly alive
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The term "abortion" is from the Latin abortus (ab- "amiss" + oriri- "appear to be born, arise")
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There was an endless list of oral drugs to abort a fetus from before the time of Hippocrates (460 B.C.) and into the Middle Ages. A few examples include clover mixed with white wine, Edderwort mixed with vinegar and water, mountain rue, birthwort mixed with pepper and mint, white hellebore, shepherd's purse, squirting cucumber, stinking iris, pomegranate, and even a poisonous fish the color of a hare
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While there has never been complete agreement about when a fetus becomes a person, the major sentiment in ancient Hebrew, Greek, and Roman thought was that there could be no living soul in an "unformed" and/or "unquickened" body and, hence, the law of homicide could not apply if a fetus was aborted before that time. However, other scholars, such as Basil, the bishop of Caesarea in Asia Minor (c. A.D. 330-379), called feticide murder at any point of development
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Alcohol

One in 20 people in the UK cannot get through the day without an alcoholic drink, says a report by the Institute of Alcohol Research, and twice as many people are addicted to alcohol than to any other legal or illegal drug
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Wine drinkers are less likely to get cancer than those who drink beer or spirits. A substance found in grapes, called resveratol, is thought to inhibit cancer
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People who drink between seven and 21 units of spirits a week (as opposed to wine) double their likelihood of getting cancer of the digestive tract compared to teetotallers
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Although women generally drink far less alcohol than men, the consequences are more serious. They become intoxicated more quickly and alcohol causes more physical harm
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Women who drink two to five units of alcohol a day are 41 percent more likely to get breast cancer than abstainers
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Pregnant women can drink a small amount of alcohol without harming their babies, says the Royal College of Obstetricians. But any more than two units a day and they run the risk of harming the brain of the unborn baby
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A little alcohol can boost your libido, but more than three units a day does the reverse. And, women who drink moderately or otherwise take longer to get pregnant
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Alcohol is not to blame for 'beer bellies'. Beer contains no fat or sugar, and has a good amount of carbohydrates, protein and vitamins. But it is a great appetite stimulant so we eat more
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Alcohol has been shown to offer protection against mouth ulcers. In a study involving 447 people, aged between 15-79, alcohol seemed to stop mouth ulcers from developing
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Alcoholism may be genetic. Scientists in America have found that children whose parents were drinkers were more likely to become alcohol dependent than those whose parents didn't drink, and this also applied to adopted children who were raised by non-drinking parents
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Alcohol is broken down by the liver at the rate of approximately one unit per hour (a pint of normal strength beer being two units)
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Binge drinking dramatically increases people's tendency toward taking risks, reduces their inhibitions, slows their reaction times and affects co-ordination, putting them at greater risk of accidents and criminal or otherwise inappropriate behaviour
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Regular alcohol consumption increases your risks of liver damage, cancer (of the liver, mouth, throat, and breast), mental health problems, weight gain, heart disease, stroke, shrunken genitals and reduced fertility
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10-15% of drinkers will become alcoholic. Contrary to popular belief, alcohol is not an addictive drug. Only a small percentage of drinkers will develop a physiological dependency on alcohol
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Alcoholism has no prejudices. It can affect anyone regardless of their race, socio- economic background, religion or education
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Alcoholics can not control their drinking nor learn to drink in moderation. When an alcoholic drinks, they fail to recognize when they have had too much to drink
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There are an estimated 18 million alcoholics in the United States
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Developing alcoholism is not a product of irresponsible drinking habits. In fact, there are many responsible drinkers that loose their ability to drink responsibly
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Children that consume alcohol before the age of 15 are four times more likely to develop alcoholism compared to those who drink after the age of 21
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According to Center of Disease Control and Prevention, alcohol is the third leading cause of death in the United States. It's estimated that alcohol and alcohol related accidents kill more than 100,000 people per year
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Alcoholism is a progressive disease. It gets more severe over time and can be terminal
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One of the first signs of alcoholism is alcohol tolerance (e.g. the ability to drink more alcohol without experiencing its effects)
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Without help, most alcoholics can not quit drinking
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In many cases, the signs of alcoholism are more present when an alcoholic doesn't drink. Alcohol dependence is often recognized by the withdrawal symptoms the alcoholic experiences while not drinking
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All 13 minerals necessary for human life can be found in alcohol beverages
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Men are twice as likely to be binge drinkers than women
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Alzheimers

Alzheimer's disease is an irreversible, progressive brain disease that slowly destroys memory and thinking skills, and eventually even the ability to carry out the simplest tasks
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Dementia is the loss of cognitive functioning-thinking, remembering, and reasoning-to such an extent that it interferes with a person's daily life and activities
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Alzheimer's disease is named after Dr. Alois Alzheimer. In 1906, Dr. Alzheimer noticed changes in the brain tissue of a woman who had died of an unusual mental illness
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Memory problems are one of the first signs of Alzheimer's disease. Some people with memory problems have a condition called amnestic mild cognitive impairment (MCI)
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As Alzheimer's disease progresses, memory loss continues and changes in other cognitive abilities appear
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Scientists don't yet fully understand what causes Alzheimer's disease, but it is clear that it develops because of a complex series of events that take place in the brain over a long period of time
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Alzheimer's disease can be definitively diagnosed only after death by linking clinical course with an examination of brain tissue and pathology in an autopsy
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Current Alzheimer's treatments focus on several different aspects, including helping people maintain mental function; managing behavioral symptoms; and slowing, delaying, or preventing the disease
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Breast Cancer

A JAMA study reports that women who had taken between one and 25 antibiotic prescriptions over an average of 17 years had an increased risk for breast cancer. The results do not mean women should stop taking antibiotics but that these medicines should be used wisely
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Although not fully understood, research suggests that pre-eclampsia is associated with a decrease in breast cancer risk in the offspring and the mother
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Approximately 1.2 million cases of breast cancer are diagnosed around the world each year. About 75% are found in women over age 50
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Breast cancer in men is rare, accounting for approximately 1% of breast cancer rates in the U.S. Nearly 400 men die of breast cancer each year. African American men are more likely to die from breast cancer than white men
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Breast cancer is the most common type of cancer among American women after skin cancer. It is the second leading cause of cancer death in women after lung cancer
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Breast cancer was often called the "nun's disease" because of the high incidence of nuns affected by the cancer
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Breast cancer was one of the first cancers to be described by ancient physicians. For example, physicians in ancient Egypt described breast cancer more than 3,500 years ago. One surgeon describes "bulging" tumors in the breast of which "there is no cure'
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Breastfeeding has consistently been shown to reduce breast cancer-the greater the duration, the greater the benefit
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Currently a woman living in the U.S. has a 12.1% (or 1 in 8) chance of being diagnosed with breast cancer. In the 1970s, the risk was 1 in 11. The increase is most likely due to longer life expectancy as well as changes in reproductive patterns, longer-term menopausal hormone use, increased obesity, and increased screening
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Currently, about 1 in 3,000 pregnant or lactating women will develop breast cancer. Research has shown that once a woman has been diagnosed with breast cancer during pregnancy, her chances of survival are less than a non-pregnant woman
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During 2002-2006, 95% of new cases and 97% of breast cancer deaths occurred in women 40 years and older. The biggest single risk factor for breast cancer is age
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In 1810, the daughter of John and Abigail Adams, Abigail "Nabby" Adams Smith (1765-1813) was diagnosed with breast cancer. She underwent a grueling mastectomy-without anesthesia. Unfortunately, she still eventually died from the disease three years later
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In 1882, the father of American surgery, William Steward Halstead (1852-1922), introduced the first radical mastectomy (the breast tissue underlying chest muscle and the lymph nodes are removed). Until the mid 1970s, 90% of women with breast cancer were treated with this procedure
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In 400 B.C., Hippocrates describe breast cancer as a humoral disease caused by black bile or melancholia. He labeled cancer karkinos, meaning "crab," because the tumors seemed to have tentacles which looked like the legs of crab
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In the U.S., an average of 112 women die of breast cancer every day, or one every 15 minutes
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It has been estimated that if every woman over the age of 50 had her yearly mammogram, breast cancer deaths in this age group would drop by 25% or more
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Jerome Urban (1914-1991), who practiced the super-radical mastectomy in 1949, would remove not only the breast and axillary nodes but also the chest muscles and internal mammary nodes in a single procedure-often on patients who had tumors less than a centimeter large. He stopped in 1963 when he became convinced it worked no better than the less mutilating radical mastectomy
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Long-term breast survivors who were treated with radiation before 1984 have much higher rates of death due to heart disease
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Mammography was initially used in 1969 when the first specialized X-ray units for breast imagining were developed
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Nearly 10.4 % of all cancers in women is breast cancer
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No association has been found between breast implants and an increased risk of breast cancer. However, the FDA recently announced that breast implants might be associated with anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL). ALCL is not breast cancer, but may show up in the scar capsule surrounding the implant
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Not all lumps that are found in the breast are cancerous but may be a fibrocystic breast condition (disease), which is benign
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Notable women who have been diagnosed with breast cancer include "Sex and the City" star Cynthia Nixon (diagnosed in 2006 at age 40), Sheryl Crow (diagnosed in 2006 at 44), Kylie Minoque (diagnosed in 2005 at 36), Elizabeth Edwards (diagnosed in 2004 at 55), Jaclyn Smith (diagnosed in 2002 at 56), and Christina Applegate (diagnosed in 2008 at 36). Other historical figures include Mary Washington (mother of George Washington), Empress Theodora (wife of Justinian), and Anne of Austria (mother of Louis the XIV)
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Nurses who work night shifts and flight attendants who have circadian rhythm disruption have a higher risk of breast cancer with long-term employment. The International Agency for Research on Cancer recently concluded that shift work, especially at night, is carcinogenic to humans
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October is National Breast Cancer Awareness Month (NBCAM). The first NBCAM took place in October 1985
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On average, it takes 100 days or more for a cancer cell to double in size. It takes about 10 years for cells to divide to a size that can be actually felt
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One in 40 women of Ashkenazi (French, German, and East European) Jewish descent carry the BRCA1 and BRCA2 (breast cancer) gene, which is significantly higher than in the general population where only 1 in 500 to 800 people carry the gene
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One myth about breast cancer is that a person's risk is increased only when there are affected relatives on the mother's side of the family. However, the father's side of the family is equally important in assessing breast cancer risk
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Only 5-10% of breast cancers occur in women who have a genetic predisposition for it. However, women with the gene mutation run a lifetime risk as high as 4 in 5 of developing the disease. The risk of developing ovarian cancer also rises to 2 in 5
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Research has found that pomegranates may help prevent breast cancer. Chemicals called ellagitannins block the production of estrogen, which can fuel some types of breast cancer
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Researchers speculate that left-handed women are more prone to developing breast cancer because they are exposed to higher levels of certain steroid hormones in the womb
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Risk factors for male breast cancer include age, BRCA gene mutations, Klinefelter's syndrome, testicular disorders, a family history of female breast cancer, severe liver disease, radiation exposure, being treated with estrogen-related drugs, and obesity
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Some physicians throughout history have proposed that breast cancer was caused by several factors, including lack of sex-which caused reproductive organs, such as the breast, to atrophy and rot. Other physicians suggested that "vigorous sex" blocked the lymphatic system, that depression restricted blood vessels and trapped coagulated blood, and that a sedentary lifestyle slowed bodily fluids
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Studies report that breast cancer patients with diabetes were nearly 50% more likely to die than those who didn't have diabetes
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Studies show that social isolation and stress can increase the speed at which breast cancer tumors grow in animal models
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The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition reports a higher risk of breast cancer in women who take multivitamins
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The first operation to use anesthesia was a breast cancer surgery
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The first recorded mastectomy for breast occurred in A.D. 548 on Theodora, Empress of Byzantine
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The incidence of breast cancer is highest in more developed countries and lowest in less developed countries
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The left breast is statistically more prone to developing cancer than the right breast. Scientists are unsure why
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The most common type of breast cancer (70%) originates in the breast ducts and is known as ductal carcinoma. A less common type of breast cancer (15%) is known as lobular carcinoma, or cancer that originates in the lobules. More rare types of cancers include medullary carcinoma, Paget's disease, tubular carcinoma, inflammatory breast cancer, and phyllodes tumors
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The risk for breast cancer increases when a woman has been using HRT for more than five years. The largest risk is when both estrogen and progesterone are given together. Women who have had a hysterectomy and are taking pills containing estrogen alone are at less of a risk
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The United States has the most cases of breast cancer in the world
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The youngest known survivor of breast cancer is Aleisha Hunter from Ontario, Canada. At only three years old, Aleisha underwent a complete mastectomy in 2010 to treat her juvenile strain of breast cancer
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There are a number of misconceptions about what can cause breast cancer. These include, but are not limited to, using deodorants or antiperspirants, wearing underwire bras, having a miscarriage or induced abortion, or bumping/bruising the breast tissue
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There are currently 2.5 million breast cancer survivors living in the United States
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There is a strong correlation between increased weight and breast cancer, especially those who gained weight in adolescence or after menopause. Body fat composition in the upper body also increases the risk
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To disprove the theory that breast cancer was caused by an imbalance of the four body humors, namely an excess of bile, French physicians Jean Astruc (1684-1766) cooked a slice of breast cancer tissue and a slice of beef and then chewed both. He said that because they tasted exactly the same, breast cancer tumor does not contain bile or acid
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Tumors are more likely to be malignant when they are firm and have irregular shapes, while benign tumors are more likely to feel round or soft. However, it is important to see a doctor when any lump is found in the breast
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When breast cancer spreads beyond the breast, it is said to be "metastatic." The most common places breast cancer spreads to are the bones, liver, and lungs
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White women have a higher incidence of breast cancer than African American women. However, African American women are more likely to die from breast cancer than white women
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Women with high breast density were found to have a four- to six-fold increased risk of breast cancer compared with women with lower breast density
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Cancer

People tend to think of cancer as one particular disease but in fact there are more than 200 different kinds of cancer
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The reason why some cells become cancerous is not properly understood but a great deal of research is being done into this area. It seems that it is something to do with an alteration to, or abnormality of, the genetic blueprint called DNA inside the cells that tells the cells to continue to divide and multiply instead of switching this process off
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Skin cancer is the most common malignancy although most types of skin cancer (called non-melanoma skin cancer) are nearly always curable
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About 85 per cent of cancers are due to malignancy of the cells that line the body (ie the skin) or the organs (such as lung lining or the tissues that line the bowel). About six per cent of cancers arise in what is called connective tissue (such as muscle, bone and fat) and about five per cent occur in the blood (leukaemia) or lymphatic system (such as a type of cancer called lymphomas). Rarer cancers make up the remainder
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In the UK, the most common cancers in men are, in order: cancer of the prostate, lung cancer, bowel cancer and cancer of the bladder. In women they are: breast cancer, bowel cancer, lung cancer and cancer of the ovary
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It has been estimated that if the current rates of improvement in survival from common cancers continues at its present rate, about 24,000 deaths within five years of diagnosis would have been avoided in patients under the age of 75 by the year 2010
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Chronic Fatigue Syndrome

Chronic Fatigue Syndrome has in the past been known by other names, such as ME (Myalgic Encephalitis) and Post Viral Fatigue Syndrome (PVFS)
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Most people with Chronic Fatigue Syndrome find that their symptoms vary greatly so that there are times when the illness does not affect them too much and then, often for no obvious reason, the symptoms can suddenly become much more severe
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In the long term, most people with Chronic Fatigue Syndrome will gradually improve with time - a significant proportion recovering within two years. However, others unfortunately continue to suffer for many years and even those who do recover are often left with lower energy levels than they had before
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Antidepressants such as fluoxetine (Prozac) are sometimes prescribed as part of the treatment of Chronic Fatigue Syndrom. In general they tend to be helpful for those sufferers who become depressed as part of the illness but may not be so helpful for others
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Studies have shown that a course of CBT sessions over a period of several months led to significant reductions in fatigue and disability in about 70 percent of Chronic Fatigue Syndrome sufferers who took part
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Graded exercise aims to gradually increase the person's level of activity. This attempts to prevent the tendency of many Chronic Fatigue Syndrome sufferers either becoming very inactive, thereby making further inactivity more likely, or the temptation to overdo their activity on their good days which almost inevitably leads to severe fatigue in the subsequent days
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Crime

You're 66 times more likely to be prosecuted in the USA than in France
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If you're in Montserrat, watch your back! Nearly 1% of the population are police officers
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Per capita, South Africa has the most assaults, rapes, and murders with firearms
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Two-thirds of the world's executions occur in China
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Two-thirds of the world's kidnappings occur in Colombia
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Venezuela is one of the happiest and most murderous places in the world
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Russia has almost twice as many judges and magistrates as the United States. Meanwhile, the United States has 8 times as much crime
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In the Maldives, there are more than 2 jails for every 1000 people
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In pure number terms, more crimes are committed in America than in any other nation. The same goes for burglaries, car thefts, rapes and assaults
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The United States puts 0.7 % of its population in prison - a vastly higher percentage than any other nation
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India's criminal courts acquitted over a million defendants in 1999, more than the next 48 surveyed countries combined
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Dating & Relationships

"Desperate" daters are typically always available, are clingy, need constant relationship status updates, fish for compliments, drop their standards, and rationalize bad treatment
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A couple will exchange house keys on an average of 12-14 dates
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A man's top dating fears include that a woman will come between him and his friends, won't allow him free time, will turn out to be a stalker, won't respect him, or will be too high maintenance
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A recent AOL survey says that 40% of women view an appropriate time frame to wait for sex as being one to three months, while 35% of men think the third date is fine. On average, couples have sex within about four to six dates
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A woman can increase the likelihood of a man approaching her if she uncrosses her arms, makes subtle eye contact, and smiles
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According to the U.S. census, there are 95.9 million unmarried people in the U.S. of which 47% are men and 53% are women
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An attractive online "About Me" section in your online dating profile often includes a brief description of what you are passionate about or thankful for, a couple of things your friends say about you, qualities you are looking for in a potential partner, the first thing people notice about you (other than appearance), how you spend your leisure time, five things you can't live without, and the latest good book you've read
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Approximately 48% of online daters reported that their breakups occurred via email
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At 4M Multimillionaire Matchmaking Club based in Seattle, WA, clients are men who have made millions but are still single. The matchmaking service charges between $10,000 and $30,000 for men. Women pay around $250 to be listed as potential partners
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Bad breath and bad teeth are an instant turn-off for potential dates. If deep dental cleaning doesn't improve a person's breath, he or she could have a stomach bacterium called H. pylori, which causes bad breath
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Beautiful women typically get more stares, winks, and harassment than average-looking women do, but they are also less likely to get asked out by average-looking men because those men tend to be intimated by them
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Body language studies show that revealing areas of the body that aren't usually on display (such as the inner wrist, the inside of the upper arm, ankles, feet, inside calf muscle, and the nape of the neck) has an immediate effect on a date and shows an instant liking
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Body type is important in attracting a date. Studies show that overweight individuals were perceived less favorably than thin or muscular people. Thin individuals were perceived as intelligent but fearful, and muscular individuals were perceived as being healthy, brave, and good looking
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Choosing exciting places for a first date increases the chances of the other person falling for you. There is a definitive link between danger and physical/romantic attraction
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Couples usually wait until six to eight dates before they are willing to enter into an exclusive relationship
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Dating specialists suggest that if a woman doesn't return a call after two messages, she is not interested
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Depending on the type of women a man would like to meet, he should visit that type of clothing store. For example, if a man likes "outdoorsy" women, he should go to an outdoor clothing store
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During the early twentieth century, dating evolved out of a courtship ritual where young women entertained male callers under the watch of a chaperone. By the 1960s and 1970s, "hooking up" increasingly replaced dating, mainly because the age at which people marry for the first time had begun creeping up
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eHarmony.com boasts that 236 of its members marry each day, accounting for 2% of U.S. marriages
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esearchers at the University of Chicago found that people were twice as likely to find a date through friends and family than through the bar scene
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Eye contact, or a "copulatory gaze," is a primary and powerful tool for attracting a potential date for both men and women. However, the meaning of various types of eye contact differs from culture to culture
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Five common signs a man may be cheating in a relationship are that he accuses his partner of cheating, he's extremely vague, he seems to be compensating by acting extra nice for no reason, he's always at work, and his partner's friends drop her hints
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Five types of women that men tend to avoid are serial flirters, someone who talks about marriage too soon, clingy women, the party-girl, and a woman who talks too much or is drama queen
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Four common date blunders include showing up late, talking about yourself too much, revealing too much about your ex, and an obvious over-eagerness
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Four out of 10 workplace dating relationships result in marriage
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Humans like mystery and "the chase," so don't be too "available" to a date. Dating experts typically suggest not sleeping too early with a date because the longer the chase, the more likely love will blossom
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If a group of women are standing together but their eyes are wandering, they are likely to be looking for guys. If they each take a turn to break away from the group to head to the bathroom alone, they are on the prowl. If they are huddled together giggling, they are usually not interested in finding men
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If a man can't decide what to wear on a date, he might want to wear blue. Studies show that women are attracted to men in blue
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If a woman is interested in her date, she will often smile at his jokes, play with her hair, fidget with an object such as a glass, blush when he pays her a compliment, pout or pucker her mouth, stumble over words, or lean in towards him
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If a woman offers to pay for everything, chances are she isn't that into the date. There's an unspoken understanding that a man paying for everything is a form of "copulatory gift," which is almost universal in all animal species
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If you want to create an instant link with a date, say his or her name at least twice in the conversation. This shows attentiveness and connectiveness
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Immediately after Tiger Wood's affairs became public, men looking for discreet relationships on BeNaughty.com dropped by 47.5%
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In a survey conducted by MSNBC.com and Elle magazine, more than 31% of men said they dumped an overweight partner compared to 12% of women
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In a survey of 5,000 singles conducted by Match.com, 43% said fresh breath mattered the most before a date, 17% said stylish clothes, 15% said sexy fragrance, 14% said good skin, and 10% said great hair
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In American society, when a man offers his date his palm face up, he is most likely deeply attracted to the woman. In fact, a human's brain is wired to respond to hand gestures and hand shapes, though the brain's response depends on the man or woman's culture and ethnicity
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In the online dating world, women are afraid of meeting a serial killer. Men are afraid of meeting someone "fat." According to Ann Rule, about 3% of men are psychopaths, of which only a tiny percentage are serial killers
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It is hard for a man to strike up a conversation if there are just two women at a social scene because he doesn't want the other friend to feel abandoned. So a woman who is looking to attract a date should bring two "wing women" with her
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It only takes seconds to decide another person's attractiveness
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Italian food is one of the most popular restaurants for a first date
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Match.com reports that 44% of its members in the United States have children
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Mirroring, or repeating someone's body language, often impresses a date because it subtly conveys interest to the other person. One should avoid copying every move, however
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Nearly 40% of men do not feel confident meeting a woman for the first time
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New York and Washington have the most state residents who are unmarried, 50% and 70%, respectively. Idaho and Utah have the most state residents who are married, 60% and 59%
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Ninety-two percent of single parents would rather date other single parents
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On average, daters will kiss on the second date
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On average, it takes between 12 to 14 dates before couples will trade house keys
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On average, there are 86 unmarried men for every 100 unmarried women in the U.S., though the actual numbers vary according to region
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On free dating sites, at least 10% of new accounts are from scammers
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On Match.com, 132 million winks are sent out each year and members go out on a six million dates per year
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One in three teenagers have experienced violence in a dating relationship
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One Manhattan matchmaker's price begins at $20,000. If a match (marriage) results, a marriage bonus is expected
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Over 50% of all singles in America have not had a date in more than two years
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Psychologists at the University of Pennsylvania studied data from over 10,000 speed daters and found that most people make a decision regarding a person's attraction within three seconds of meeting
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Research has confirmed that women are more attracted to men who wear pheromone-based colognes or aftershaves such as 10X. Studies have also shown that women, who have a stronger sense of smell than men, are particularly attracted to musk and black licorice smells
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Research shows that men know they're falling in love after just three dates, but women don't fall in love until date 14
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Signs that a man is about to break up with a woman include that he spends less time with her, he is no longer romantic, passionate kissing turns into quick pecks (particularly no kiss during sex), he fantasizes about someone else during sex, he pats her during a hug, and he tries to start fights
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Signs that a woman is not interested in her date include avoiding eye contact, faking a smile or not smiling, leaning away, answering in monosyllables, sagging her shoulders, looking at her watch, tapping her foot, or staring blankly
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Speed dating, invented by a rabbi from Los Angeles in 1999, is based on a Jewish tradition of chaperoned gatherings of young Jewish singles
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Statistics show that trying to get a relationship to work with an ex doesn't usually work. The case where it might work is if there were extenuating circumstances of the breakup, such as one of couple had been going through a family tragedy or moved
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Studies show that before a man even speaks a word, the way he stands (whether he is slouching or not) counts for over 80% of woman's first impression
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Studies show that happiness is contagious and that potential dates find it hard to walk away from happy people. One of the biggest turn-offs during a date is negativity
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Studies show that men are put off by groups of loud women. If a woman wants to get a date, she should break away from a loud group to give a man a chance to approach her
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Studies show that remembering bits of information about a person and working them into conversations not only is highly flattering but also shows interest
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Studies show that schools, colleges, coffee shops, and malls are all excellent places to flirt because people are more open to meeting others in these places. Poor locations are restaurants and movie theaters
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Talking to a bartender makes a woman seem more friendly and makes it easier for a guy to jump in on her conversation
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The appropriate time to call after meeting a man or woman is hotly debated among dating experts. Typically, the ideal time to wait to call is two to four days, though no longer than four to five days. Calling too soon can appear desperate
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The curve of the counter in a bar is designed so other customers can easily "check out" other customers. Bars also purposely place mirrors to help create a larger sense of place and to allow a person to scope out other people behind them
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The most common time for breakups is around three to five months
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The online dating industry generates $1.8 billion per year and the matchmaker/dating coach business generates $260 million per year in the United States
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The third week in September is National Singles Week in the U.S
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Thirty-three percent of online daters form a relationship, 33% do not, and 33% give up
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Top ten turn-offs for women include cystic acne, raggedy nails, flatulence and belching, missing teeth, body odor, bad breath, hairy nostrils, "man boobs," "goofy" glasses, and hair "mistakes
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Twenty to 40 million Americans have used online dating services. Nearly 50% of online daters are aged 18-34 and 24% are 35-44
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Twenty-nine percent of Americans have had sex on the first date
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Typically, dating specialists suggest waiting until the third date to cook someone dinner at home
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When a man first approaches a woman, she will base 55% of her initial impression of him on his appearance and body language, 38% on his style of speaking, and 7% on what he actually says
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Women who post a photo on Internet dating sites receive twice as many email messages as women who don't. The same study found that men who reported incomes higher than $250,000 received 156% more email than those with $50,000
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Worst places to go on first date include fast-food restaurants, your kids' birthday party or school play, your parents' house, strip clubs, X-rated films or swingers parties, a party where your ex will be, church activities, or window shopping
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Diabetes

Diabetes is a chronic condition that arises when the pancreas does not produce enough insulin, or when the body cannot effectively use the insulin produced
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Insulin is a hormone made by the pancreas that helps 'sugar' (glucose) to leave the blood and enter the cells of the body to be used as 'fuel'. When a person has diabetes, either their pancreas does not produce the insulin they need (type 1 diabetes) or their body cannot make effective use of the insulin they produce (type 2 diabetes)
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Diabetes is the fourth leading cause of death in most developed countries
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Each year, over three million deaths worldwide are attributable to diabetes-related causes
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Diabetes is reaching epidemic proportions. In 2003, the International Diabetes Federation estimated that approximately 194 million people around the world had diabetes
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The prevalence of type 2 diabetes is rising at an alarming rate throughout the world, due to increases in life expectancy, obesity and sedentary lifestyles
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India is host to the largest diabetes population in the world with an estimated 35 million people, amounting to 8% of the adult population
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In China, where 2.7% of the adult population is affected by type 2 diabetes, the number of people with this condition is likely to exceed 50 million within the next 25 years
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Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune disease that prevents the body from producing insulin. Type 1 diabetes occurs most often in children and young adults
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Type 2 diabetes is a metabolic disorder that results from the body's inability to make effective use of the insulin produced
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Genetics, obesity, and lack of appropriate diet and physical activity are factors that appear to play a role in the development of type 2 diabetes
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Type 2 diabetes occurs most often in adults over the age of 40 and accounts for up to 95 percent of all diabetes cases
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As a consequence of increased obesity and inactivity among the young, type 2 diabetes is now affecting children and young adults
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Treatment of type 1 diabetes typically includes a carefully calculated diet, physical activity, blood glucose testing and daily insulin injections
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Treatment of type 2 diabetes typically includes appropriate diet, exercise, home glucose testing, oral medication and/or insulin
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Commons symptoms of type 1 diabetes include: excessive thirst, frequent urination, sudden weight loss, extreme tiredness, blurred vision
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Almost 50% of people with type 2 diabetes are not aware that they have the condition
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A landmark 20-year study of treatment for people with type 2 diabetes, demonstrate that maintaining blood glucose as close to normal as possible can significantly reduce the risk of diabetic microvascular complications
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Diet

In 2008, 25% of men and 29% of women reported meeting the government '5 a day' guidelines of consuming five or more portions of fruit and vegetables a day (UK)
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In 2008, around 1 in 5 children aged 5 to 15 consumed five or more portions of fruit and vegetables a day (19% of boys and 20% of girls) (UK)
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In 2008, in the UK, there was a reduction in the quantities purchased in most major food groups. For example, purchases of fresh fruit fell by 7.7% between 2007 and 2008 and fresh green vegetables fell by 9.6%
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Healthy Eating

Kids are eating over 40% more salt than they should.
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In the UK, 10% of kids don't eat breakfast; over 16% for teenage girls (UK)
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In the last decade, the number of school children who are overweight or obese has nearly doubled. One third of our kids are now too fat. One quarter of teenagers are already obese (UK)
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Kids with fat parents are twice as likely to become obese. Kids who are obese by the age of 12 are 85% more likely to remain obese into adult life. Kids who are obese in their early teens are twice as likely to die by the age of 50 (UK)
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One in five kids don't eat any fruit at all. Overall, kids eat about half the recommended five portions of fruit and vegetables a day (UK)
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80% of children eat more than the recommended amount of sugar. Sugar should only provide 11% of the energy in the diet but kids get 17% - this mostly comes from soft drinks and confectionery (UK)
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Kids get about GBP1.75 to spend on snacks: 70% buy fizzy drinks, 60% buy crisps and nearly 50% buy chocolate (UK)
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An estimated one third of all deaths from cancer and heart disease are attributable to bad diet (UK)
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Half of teenage girls are deficient in iron which exposes them to the risk of anaemia and can also have an impact on IQ and the ability to learn (UK)
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19% of teenage girls don't eat enough calcium which puts them at risk of osteoporosis later in life. Rickets, a disease hardly seen for 100 years, is starting to reemerge in some groups (UK)
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Poor fibre intake, reflected in rising levels of constipation amongst children, increases the risk of bowel diseases including colon cancer (UK)
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Dental decay is a real problem. Over 50% of kids have problems with their teeth as a result of too many sugary foods and drinks. Acidic fizzy drinks increase the risk of dental erosion by 220% (UK)
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Obesity in adolescence is associated with the premature onset of type 2 diabetes, a condition which until only recently was rarely seen in children. It also increases the risk of heart disease and several cancers including bowel, stomach, oesophageal, kidney, womb and breast cancer (UK)
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Not getting enough nutrients, apart from laying down health problems for later in life, means that kids aren't getting enough of the right minerals and vitamins to be doing their best (UK)
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Knife Crime

In the UK knife crime happens every 24 minutes, in London it is every 50 minutes
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Males aged between 14-24 are most likely to be victims of knife crime (UK)
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28% of children in schools and 57% that were excluded said they have carried a knife in the last year (UK)
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3% in school and 21% excluded said they had threatened another person with a weapon (UK)
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More school children who carried a knife were victimised than those who didnt carry one (UK)
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15% of children in schools felt "a bit" or "very unsafe" according to the Youth Justice Board (UK)
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Love & Relationships

Men who kiss their wives in the morning live five years longer than those who don't
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The women of the Tiwi tribe in the South Pacific are married at birth
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The 'Love Detector' service from Korean cell phone operator KTF uses technology that is supposed to analyze voice patterns to see if a lover is speaking honestly and with affection. Users later receive an analysis of the conversation delivered through text message that breaks down the amount of affection, surprise, concentration and honesty of the other speaker
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People are more likely to tilt their heads to the right when kissing instead of the left (65 percent of people go to the right!)
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When it comes to doing the deed early in the relationship, 78 percent of women would decline an intimate rendezvous if they had not shaved their legs or underarms
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Feminist women are more likely than other females to be in a romantic relationship
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Two-thirds of people report that they fall in love with someone they've known for some time vs. someone that they just met
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There's a reason why office romances occur: The single biggest predictor of love is proximity
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Falling in love can induce a calming effect on the body and mind and raises levels of nerve growth factor for about a year, which helps to restore the nervous system and improves the lover's memory
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Love can also exert the same stress on your body as deep fear. You see the same physiological responses - pupil dilation, sweaty palms, and increased heart rate
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Brain scans show that people who view photos of a beloved experience an activation of the caudate - the part of the brain involving cravings
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Eleven percent of women have gone online and done research on a person they were dating or were about to meet, versus seven percent of men
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Couples' personalities converge over time to make partners more and more similar
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The oldest known love song was written 4,000 years ago and comes from an area between the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers
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The tradition of the diamond engagement ring comes from Archduke Maximillian of Austria who, in the 15th century, gave a diamond ring to his fianc?e, Mary of Burgundy
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Forty-three percent of women prefer their partners never sign 'love' to a card unless they are ready for commitment
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People who are newly in love produce decreased levels of the hormone serotonin - as low as levels seen in people with obsessive-compulsive disorder. Perhaps that's why it's so easy to feel obsessed when you're smitten
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Philadelphia International Airport finished as the No. 1 best airport for making a love connection, according to an online survey
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According to mathematical theory, we should date a dozen people before choosing a long-term partner; that provides the best chance that you'll make a love match
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A man's beard grows fastest when he anticipates sex
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Every Valentine's Day, Verona, the Italian city where Shakespeare's play Romeo and Juliet took place, receives around 1,000 letters addressed to Juliet
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When we get dumped, for a period of time we love the person who rejected us even more, says Dr. Helen Fisher of Rutgers University and author of Why We Love. The brain regions that lit up when we were in a happy union continue to be active
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Familiarity breeds comfort and closeness ? and romance.
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One in five long-term love relationships began with one or both partners being involved with others
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OK, this one may not surprise you, but we had to share it: Having a romantic relationship makes both genders happier. The stronger the commitment, the greater the happiness!
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Obesity

In 2008, almost a quarter of adults (24% of men and 25% of women aged 16 or over) in England were classified as obese (BMI 30kg/m2 or over)
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A greater proportion of men than women (42% compared with 32%) in England were classified as overweight in 2008 (BMI 25 to less than 30kg/m2)
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Thirty-nine per cent of adults had a raised waist circumference in 2008 compared to 23% in 1993. Women were more likely then men (44% and 34% respectively) to have a raised waist circumference (over 88cm for women and over 102 cm for men)
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In 2008, the number of prescription items dispensed for the treatment of obesity was 1.28 million; this is ten times the number in 1999 (127 thousand) (UK)
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Physical Activity

In 2008, boys aged 2 to 15 were more likely than girls to meet the recommended levels of physical activity with 32% of boys and 24% of girls reporting taking part in 60 minutes or more of physical activity on each of the seven days in the previous week
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Sex

A creature named Funisia dorothea is thought by most scientists to be the first animal on the Earth to have sex, pushing back the history of sex by up to 30 million years. Researchers have identified its capacity for sexual rather than asexual reproduction. It was named after paleontologist Mary Droser's mother Dorothy Drose
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A man will ejaculate 1/2 trillion sperm in his lifetime
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A woman who feels good about her genitals is six more times more likely to be sexually satisfied than a woman who does not
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According to Polish anthropologist Bronislaw Malinowski, the natives of the South Pacific coined the phrase "missionary position," because the newly arrived Christian missionaries were shocked that people in the South Pacific had sex in several positions, not just one
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According to the 2007/2008 Durex Global Sex survey, couples in Greece have the most sex, approximately 164 times per year. Brazil follows a close second with 145 times per year. The global average is 103
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According to the Kinsey Institute, the average speed of sperm during ejaculation is 28 mph
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At least 3/4 of all men and women in the U.S. have had sex by the time they are in their late teens. More than 2/3 of sexually experienced teens have had more than two sex partners
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Because there is an increase in blood circulation around the genitals during a woman's period, she may experience more powerful orgasms during this time
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Between 10-12% of women in the U.S. have never experience an orgasm. Marilyn Monroe, an international sex symbol, reportedly never experienced an orgasm with any of her famous lovers
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Contrary to popular belief, large breasts do not respond sexually better than small breasts
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Female ejaculation is not a myth. A woman's ejaculate has a similar chemical makeup to semen (minus the sperm). A woman can ejaculate a teaspoon or a cupful
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Having sex regularly is known to have amazing health benefits, such as promoting the body's production of germ-fighting antibodies, strengthening the pelvic floor, burning calories, stabilizing the menstrual cycle, and providing natural pain relief through orgasms
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In 26 states, impotence is grounds for divorce
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In several countries, some new brides place tiny bags containing chicken's blood into the vagina prior to intercourse to prove the hymen was intact before marriage. In other countries, women have placed congealed sheep's blood in their vaginas for the same purpose
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Intercourse has also been called "afternoon delight," "dancing the mattress," "rumbusticating," "shtupping," "spearing the bearded clam," and "testing the mattress
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Lisa Sparxx, a porn star, had intercourse with 919 men in 24 hours, setting a new world record in 2004
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Many researchers consider the skin to be the largest sex organ and the brain to be the most powerful
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Men who help with housework also tend to have more sex
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Not all sexual positions lend themselves well to female orgasm. Rear-entry positions, for example, miss the clitoris entirely
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Sex and orgasm (from the Greek orga, meaning "to swell with moisture") can alleviate menstrual cramps and menstrual migraines. While some couples avoid sex during menses, a diaphragm or cervical cap can decrease the amount of menstrual blood
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The amount of semen (from the Latin for "seed") produced with each ejaculation is 1-2 teaspoons. The typical man will produced about 14 gallons of semen throughout his life
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The Gr?fenberg Spot, or G-spot, is named after Dr. Ernest Gr?fenberg who in 1950 found that stimulation of a particular area in the vagina could trigger powerful orgasms, female ejaculation, and arousal. Some women undergo G-spot amplification, which is a surgery to enhance sensitivity in that area
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The pubococcygeal muscle (the PC muscle) is at the base of the penis in men and surrounds the vagina in women. A strong, well-exercised PC muscle will improve orgasms for both men and women
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The record for the most female orgasms is 134 in one hour
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Women are capable of having different types of orgasms, depending on the stimulation. The clitoral orgasm is the most commonly known, often the most powerful, and the most often achieved. The second type is a vaginal orgasm. The third kind is a blended orgasm, or when a woman's vagina and clitoris are simultaneously stimulated. Some women can also have an orgasm through kissing, nipple stimulation, or simply pressing their legs together
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Smoking

Cigarette smoking is the greatest single cause of illness and premature death in the UK
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About 100,000 people in the UK die each year due to smoking. Smoking-related deaths are mainly due to cancers, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and heart disease
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If you are a long-term smoker, on average, your life expectancy is about 10 years less than a non-smoker
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Many people have given up smoking. In 1972 just under half of adults in the UK were smokers. By 1990 this had fallen to just under a third. At present, about a quarter of UK adults are smokers
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About 30,000 people in the UK die from lung cancer each year. More than 8 in 10 cases are directly related to smoking
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About 120,000 people in the UK die each year from heart disease. About 1 in 7 of these is due to smoking. This is the biggest killer illness in the UK
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Cancers of the mouth, nose, throat, larynx, gullet (oesophagus), pancreas, bladder, cervix, blood (leukaemia), and kidney are all more common in smokers
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The chemicals in tobacco can damage the lining of the blood vessels and affect the level of lipids (fats) in the bloodstream. This increases the risk of atheroma forming (sometimes called hardening of the arteries). Atheroma is the main cause of heart disease, strokes, peripheral vascular disease (poor circulation of the legs), and aneurysms (swollen arteries which can burst causing internal bleeding). All of these atheroma-related diseases are more common in smokers.
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Smokers are more likely than non-smokers to become impotent or have difficulty in maintaining an erection in middle life. This is thought to be due to smoking-related damage of the the blood vessels to the penis
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Smoking is known to be a risk factor for developing rheumatoid arthritis. One research study estimated that smoking is responsible for about 1 in 5 cases of rheumatoid arthritis
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Smokers tend to develop more lines on their face at an earlier age than non-smokers. This often makes smokers look older than they really are
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Fertility is reduced in smokers (both male and female).
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On average, women who smoke have a menopause nearly two years earlier than non-smokers
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Smoking often causes worse symptoms with regard to asthma, colds, flu, chest infections, tuberculosis, chronic rhinitis, diabetic retinopathy, hyperthyroidism, multiple sclerosis, optic neuritis, and Crohn's disease
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Smoking increases the risk of developing various other conditions including dementia, optic neuropathy, cataracts, macular degeneration, pulmonary fibrosis, psoriasis, gum disease, tooth loss, osteoporosis and Raynaud's phenomenon
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About 17,000 children under five years old in England and Wales are admitted to hospital each year due to illnesses caused by their parents' smoking
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Children and babies who live in a home where there is a smoker have an increased risk of dying from cot death (sudden infant death syndrome)
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Children and babies who live in a home where there is a smoker are more likely than average to become smokers themselves when older
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Children and babies who live in a home where there is a smoker on average, do less well at reading and reasoning skills compared with children in smoke-free homes, even at low levels of smoke exposure
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You have an increased risk of lung cancer and heart disease if you are exposed to other people smoking for long periods of time. Tobacco smoke is also an irritant, and can make asthma and other conditions worse
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If you stop smoking before the age of about 35, your life expectancy is only slightly less than people who have never smoked
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If you stop smoking before the age of 50, you decrease the risk of dying from smoking-related diseases by 50%
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About 2 in 3 smokers want to stop smoking. Some people can give up easily. Willpower and determination are the most important aspects when giving up smoking
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STI's / STD's

A Brazilian Web site lets people send their partners e-cards informing them they have an STD and that they should see a doctor
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A condom merely reduces-but does not eliminate-the risk of an STD
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A girl is four times more likely to contract an STI/STD than she is to become pregnant
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A pregnant woman with STDs may have an early onset of labor, premature rupture of membranes, uterine infections after delivery, or a still birth. The baby may suffer from low birth weight, eye infection (conjunctivitis), pneumonia, neonatal sepsis (blood infection), neurological damage, blindness, and liver disease
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African-American children represent two thirds (65%) of all reported cases of pediatric AIDS
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Al Capone had syphilis and it may have driven him mad. Other notable people who most likely suffered from syphilis include Hernando Cort?z, Adolph Hitler, Benito Mussolini, Friedrich Nietzsche, Edourd Manet, Napoleon and, possibly, Franz Schubert
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Although African-Americans make up only 13% of the U.S. population, they accounted for one half of the estimated new HIV/AIDS diagnoses in 2004
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Although teenagers and young adults represent only 25% of the sexually active population, 15- to 24-year-olds account for nearly half of all STIs/STDs diagnoses each year. Every day in America, 12,000 teenagers contract a sexually transmitted disease
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An STI (sexually transmitted infection) is a germ (virus, bacteria, parasite) that can cause an illness inside a person even though the person doesn't have any symptoms. An STD (sexually transmitted disease) refers to infections that are causing symptoms or problems
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As of 2007, an estimated 1 to 1.2 million Americans were living with HIV/AIDS, with 21% undiagnosed
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Bathhouses, which were popular in the 1970s-and offered gay men a variety of partners and sex, with promiscuity the norm-became breeding grounds for HIV
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Between 1,500 and 1,700 new cases of new HIV/AIDs infections occur daily in South Afric
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Black women in 2002 accounted for 67% of the U.S. AIDS cases among women
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By 2010, at least 35 million children will have lost one or both parents to AIDS
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Chancroid ("soft chancre") is highly contagious but usually curable STI/STD. Unlike a syphilis chancre that is hard or rubbery, a chancroid is soft to the touch. Ulcers are painful in men, but women may not be aware of them. Rare in the Western world, the disease can be easily confused with syphilis or herpes
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Child rape is an epidemic in Africa, largely due to the entrenched belief that sex with a virgin can cure sexually transmitted diseases, such as AIDS
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Chlyamida is Greek for "cloak" because early researchers believed the disease "cloaked" the nucleus of an infect cell.a Chlamydia is found only in human cells, though it shares a common ancestor with plants and exhibits unusual plant-like traits
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Common symptoms of STDs include burning or pain while urinating; any discharge from the opening of the penis; a change in a woman's normal vaginal discharge or smell; sores, blisters, rashes, bums, swellings, or growths around the penis, vagina, or rectum; itching, burning, or pain around the penis, vagina, or anus; pain during sex; and pain in the lower abdomen
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Crabs (pubic lice) are small parasites that feed on human blood. They can be sexually transmitted even if there is no penetration or bodily fluid exchanged or even if a condom is worn. They can live 24 hours off a human host, making it possible to get crabs from infested bedding or clothes. Animals do not get crabs
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Curable STIs/STDs are usually bacterial and include chlamydia, gonorrhea, syphilis, and trichomoniasis. Viral STIs/STDs cannot be cured and include HPV (though the body can clear this disease), Herpes, Hepatitis B, and HIV
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Despite more discussions about STDs and safer sex after the discovery of HIV, the number of people infected with all STDs continues to grow
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Digital-anal sex, in which one partner uses a finger to stimulate the other's anus, can be a means of transmitting HIV
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Direct medical costs associated with STIs/STDs in the United States are estimated at $13 billion per year
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Doctors in the late 1400s and early 1500s were so afraid of syphilis they would not write down its name. Instead they used the Greek letter Sigma as its symbol
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Donovanosis is a very rare sexually transmitted disease. Small, painless nodules appear after 10-40 days after exposure and, if left untreated, can destroy penile tissue
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Douching (from the Latin ducere, "to lead") before and after sex does not protect against STDs/STIs and, in fact, may promote an infection after exposure to an STI/STD
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During the first outbreak of syphilis in Europe, in the late fifteenth century, nearly 10 million Europeans died
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Each year there are approximately 333 million new cases of STDs in the world, according to the CDC
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Each year, 40,000 Americans are infected with the most serious STD, HIV/AIDS
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Genital pimples do not necessarily mean an STD and may simply indicate a case of genital acne
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Gonorrhea got its name in the year A.D. 131 from Galen, one of the greatest Greek physicians. Its name literally means "flow of seed" because Galen mistakenly thought the penile discharge was "seed" flowing out against its will
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Hepatitis A, hepatitis B, and some types of HPV are the only vaccine-preventable STDs
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Historians believe syphilis originated in the New World among the Native Americans in the Caribbean, and that Christopher Columbus may have been responsible for spreading syphilis to Europe
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HIV/AIDS originated in primates in Sub-Sahara Africa and transferred to humans during the late nineteenth or early twentieth century, probably when a bushmeat hunter was bitten or cut by an infected animal
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HPV is believed to cause oral cancer in men at the same rate as tobacco and alchohol
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In the beginning of the twentieth century, up to a third of all patients in mental asylums were thought to be suffering from tertiary syphilis
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Infertility as a result of PID accounts for 50-80% of the infertility in Africa
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Italians and Germans call syphilis the "French Disease," and the French call it "the Spanish Disease
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Many sexually transmitted diseases, including HIV, can be transmitted through oral sex
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Mutual masturbation is not a guarantee against contracting an STD. Pubic lice, scabies, bacterial vaginosis cytomegalovirus, herpes simplex, and human papillomavirus virus (HPV) can all be contracted through mutual masturbation
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Nearly 6.2 million Americans get a new HPV infection each year. Most HPV infections cause no clinical problems and resolve on their own without treatment (91% of new infections clear up within two years)
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Nearly 700,000 people in the United States are infected with gonorrhea per year. Gonorrhea is also called "the clap," from the Middle English clapper meaning a rabbit burrow, which was slang for a place of prostitution
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Nearly half of U.S. youths and adolescents are unaware of their HIV infection, and less than a quarter are tested for the virus
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One in four teen girls has a sexual disease, with HPV (human papillomavirus) by far being the most common
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One out of 20 people will become infected with hepatitis B (HBV) during their life. HBV is linked to chronic liver disease and liver cancer
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Over 180 million cases of trichomoniasis occur worldwide per year. In the United States, it is estimated that 7.4 million new cases of trichomoniasis occur each year
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Over 25 million people globally have died of AIDS since 1981
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People with an STD are more likely to become infected with HIV because they usually have genital ulcerations which provide an easy route for HIV to enter the blood stream
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Pre-ejaculate can still transmit infection. Withdrawing before ejaculation also does not prevent STDs
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Researchers now can identify the DNA of many HPV strains, which can be used to confirm the presence of HPV types that are linked to cervical disease
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Roughly 40,000 new HIV infections in the United States occur each year
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Second to African-American women, Native American women are diagnosed with STIs/STDS at a higher rater than all other racial/ethnic groups
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Some STDs (syphilis) can cross the placenta and infect a baby while in the uterus. Other STDs (gonorrhea, genital herpes, chlamydia, hepatitis B) can be transmitted from mother to baby during delivery through the birth canal. HIV can cross the placenta during pregnancy, infect the baby during the birth and, unlike most STDs, can also infect the baby through breastfeeding
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Some strains of HPV can lead to a persistent infection that can progress to cervical cancer if left untreated. Every year, about 12,000 women are diagnosed with cervical cancer in the United States and nearly 4,000 die. However, cervical cancer is largely preventable with effective screening
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STIs/STDs cannot be acquired in a swimming or public bathroom (unless you have sex in the pool or on the toilet). Most STIs/STDs are spread only through direct genital contact and begin to die immediately after they leave the infected person
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STIs/STDs were previously called "venereal diseases" (VDs), a term which derives from Veneris, or Venus, the Roman goddess of love
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Syphilis is named after a mythological Greek shepherd named Syphilus who was cursed with a horrible disease as a punishment for insulting the god Apollo
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The CDC estimates that 20 million Americans are currently infected with the genital human papillomavirus (HPV), a virus that causes most cases of cervical cancer and genital warts
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The CDC initially called AIDS the "gay cancer" and later renamed it GRID (Gay-Related Immune Deficiency). In 1982, the disease was renamed AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome)
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The estimated number of people living in the U.S. with a viral STD/STI is over 65 million. One in two sexually active people will contact an STD/STI before the age of 25
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The first hospital for venereal disease was the London Lock Hospital in 1746. Treatment was not always voluntary
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The human papillomavirus (HPV) is currently the fastest growing STI/STD
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The only STD that affects more men than women is syphilis
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The origins of STIs/STDs are obscure. Some researchers have argued that microbes adapted themselves to affect the human genital area or even jumped from animals to humans
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The Pap test is named after the physician George Papanicolaou, who introduced this technique in 1949
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The rate at which HIV becomes AIDS varies greatly among individuals. Some who contract HIV develop AIDS very soon after; in others, full-blown AIDS won't develop for 10 or more years
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The rate of chlamydia among African-American men is more than 11 times that of white men. Additionally, African-Americans remain the group most heavily affected by gonorrhea. In 2004, the gonorrhea rate among blacks was 19 times the rate among whites
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The rate of chlamydia among black Americans was over eight times higher than that of whites in 2007. It was also substantially higher in American Indians/Alaska Natives and Hispanics than in whites
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The single biggest driver of heterosexual spread of AIDS to black women is the incarceration of black men
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There is now a vaccine that prevents some types of HPV. The vaccine is given in three shots over six months and is recommended for females aged 13-26 who have not been diagnosed with HPV. Most major insurances cover the cost, which is currently $125 per shot
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Though one in five Americans has genital herpes, nearly 90% are unaware they have it. Some estimates suggest that by 2025 up to 40% of all men and half of all women could be infected
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Though scientists first recognized HIV/AIDS as a disease in 1981, it was introduced into North America by a Haitian immigrant during the late 1960s
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Unprotected anal intercourse with a partner whose status for STIs/STDs is unknown is the highest-risk sexual practice
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While most STDs can be accurately tested soon after exposure, HIV should be tested for most accurate results about six months after possible exposure
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While some STIs/STDs-such as chlamydia, gonorrhea, and syphilis-are curable, if left untreated, they can cause death, infertility, chronic pain, serious birth defects, and miscarriages
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With a single chlamydia infection, there is a 25% chance of sterility for women. With a second infection, there is a 50% chance. And a third infection almost guarantees sterility, due to PID (pelvic inflammatory disease)
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Women and their children are at much greater risk than men for long-lasting or permanent consequences of STIs/STDs
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Women who have sex with other women can still become infected with STDs and need to have yearly Pap smears as a screening test for cervical cancer
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Stress

Stress is a part of everyday life and in fact a certain amount of stress is essential since it keeps us alert to danger and helps us to perform at our best in certain situations
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Major life changes have a tendency to cause stress. These have been called 'life events' by social scientists and include such things as bereavement, divorce, moving house, getting married, having a child and changing jobs
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A combination of minor stresses in daily life, when added up and repeated on a daily basis time and time again, can result in the symptoms of stress
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Post Traumatic Stress Disorder: Occasionally a single event in someone's life becomes the major source of stress that they find difficult to come to terms with. This may be the death of someone close to them, a road traffic accident or a shocking experience such as being involved in a train accident or a war zone
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Personality traits make an individual either more or less prone to stress. For instance, some people are able to see the positive aspects of almost any situation whereas others can only see the negative and are therefore more liable to be stressed by even the most minor setbacks in life
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A feeling of anxiety every day without even knowing what the anxiety relates to is called 'free floating anxiety'
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Avoiding stress throughout life is impossible but it is possible to limit stress by recognising those aspects of life that cause you to feel stressed and reducing them as much as is practical
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A good way of dealing with areas of stress in life is to apply the 'three A's' to them: Avoid, Alter or Accept. The solution will be different for each area of stress. Some can be altered, some can be avoided and the others must be accepted
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Regular exercise can reduce stress levels by providing somewhere for the adrenaline mentioned earlier to go. It also takes you out of the usual environment and may allow you to see things in a different perspective
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Testicular Cancer

1,800 men are diagnosed with testicular cancer in the UK each year. It accounts for one to two percent of all cancers in men
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The main symptom of testicular cancer is a lump, irregularity or swelling in one testicle. A few men with testicular cancer may experience lower back pain, stomach pain or a cough as their first symptoms
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Men born with an undescended testicle (one that remains in the abdominal cavity rather than descending into the scrotum) may be at greater risk of developing testicular cancer
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Testicular cancer is the most common malignancy in young men between the ages of 20 and 34. There are about 7500 new cases yearly, with approximately 350 deaths per year in the US
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More than 90% of testicular cancer patients are cured by their initial treatment, and many of those who have recurrent disease can also be cured with chemotherapy or radiation
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Each year around 70 men in the UK die from testicular cancer, but testicular cancer death rates have fallen by 80% in the last forty years
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Toe Nail Fungus

Some studies show that toe nail fungus affects roughly 6-8% of the population, while other studies show that it affects anywhere from 2-18%
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Studies have shown that around 25% of adults will need to have toenail fungus treatment before they are 40, and that senior citizens have a 50% chance of needing to have a remedy
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There are a number of things that you can do to prevent toenail fungus, including cleaning your feet very carefully and making sure that they stay dry
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Disclaimer: These facts are for information only and should not be used for the diagnosis or treatment of medical conditions. Facts have been compiled from information in the public domain (sources are referenced against each fact) and we are unable to make any guarantees regarding their accuracy. Please consult a doctor or other health care professional for diagnosis and treatment of medical conditions.

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